An worldwide collaboration led by EPFL chemical engineers has overcome an issue within the manufacturing of perovskites that reduces their effectivity as solar panels. The strategy produced perovskite solar panels with an effectivity of 23.9 % and operational stability longer than 1000 hours.
Perovskites are hybrid compounds made out of steel halides and natural constituents, and present nice potential in a variety of functions, e.g. LED lights, lasers, and photodetectors. However, their main contribution is in solar cells, the place they’re poised to overhaul the market and exchange their silicon counterparts.
Among the main candidates for extremely environment friendly and steady solar cells are lead iodide perovskites, which present glorious light-harvesting capabilities. However, their effectivity relies upon significantly on their manufacturing, and a key issue is eradicating defects from their light-harvesting floor.
Passivation and perovskite effectivity
The approach that is usually carried out is with a technique known as “passivation,” which coats the floor of perovskite movies with chemical compounds (alkylammonium halides) to make them extra resistant and steady. The course of provides a two-dimensional perovskite layer on prime of the first perovskite gentle absorber, which improves the steadiness of the system.
The drawback is that passivation truly backfires by forming so-called “in-plane” perovskite layers that do not “move” electrical cost as effectively, particularly beneath warmth. This is an apparent drawback for scaling up and commercializing potential solar panels.
3D chemistry to the rescue
In a brand new research, scientists led by Mohammad Nazeeruddin at EPFL’s School of Basic Sciences, have discovered a option to resolve the issue by treating them with completely different isomers of an iodide used to make perovskites. In chemistry, isomers are compounds which have the identical molecular formulation however their atoms are organized in another way in three-dimensional space.
The scientists studied the minimal vitality required to type two-dimensional perovskites from completely different isomers of the iodide PDEAI2 (phenylenediethylammonium). The isomers have been designed for what the researchers name “tailored defect passivation,” which means that their passivation impact on perovskites was very effectively characterised upfront.
The strategy turned out to be very efficient in staving off the detrimental results of passivation on perovskite effectivity. Specifically, the simplest PDEAI2 isomer was additionally essentially the most “sterically hindered,” a time period that refers to a slowing of chemical reactivity merely due to the compound’s molecular bulk. In reality, steric hindrance is usually used to forestall or reduce undesirable reactions.
The perovskite solar cells produced with this methodology confirmed an effectivity of 23.9 % with operational stability past 1000 hours. The work additionally achieved a report effectivity of 21.4 % for perovskite modules with an lively space of 26 cm2.
Cheng Liu et al, Tuning structural isomers of phenylenediammonium to afford environment friendly and steady perovskite solar cells and modules, Nature Communications (2021). DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-26754-2
Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne
3D chemistry boosts perovskite effectivity to 23.9% (2021, November 11)
retrieved 11 November 2021
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