This yr’s Nobel Prize in Physics celebrated the elemental curiosity of quantum entanglement, and likewise envisioned the potential purposes in “the second quantum revolution”—a brand new age after we are in a position to manipulate the weirdness of quantum mechanics, together with quantum superposition and entanglement. A big-scale and totally useful quantum community is the holy grail of quantum data sciences. It will open a brand new frontier of physics, with new potentialities for quantum computation, communication, and metrology.
One of essentially the most important challenges is to increase the space of quantum communication to a virtually helpful scale. Unlike classical alerts that may be noiselessly amplified, quantum states in superposition can’t be amplified as a result of they can’t be completely cloned. Therefore, a high-performance quantum community requires not solely ultra-low-loss quantum channels and quantum reminiscence, but in addition high-performance quantum gentle sources. There has been thrilling latest progress in satellite-based quantum communications and quantum repeaters, however a scarcity of appropriate single-photon sources has hampered additional advances.
What is required of a single-photon supply for quantum community purposes? First, it ought to emit one (just one) photon at a time. Second, to realize brightness, the single-photon sources ought to have excessive system effectivity and a excessive repetition price. Third, for purposes corresponding to in quantum teleportation that require interfering with unbiased photons, the only photons ought to be indistinguishable. Additional necessities embrace a scalable platform, tunable and narrowband linewidth (favorable for temporal synchronization), and interconnectivity with matter qubits.
A promising supply is quantum dots (QDs), semiconductor particles of just some nanometers. However, prior to now twenty years, the visibility of quantum interference between unbiased QDs has hardly ever exceeded the classical restrict of fifty% and distances have been restricted to round a number of meters or kilometers.
As reported in Advanced Photonics, a global group of researchers has achieved high-visibility quantum interference between two unbiased QDs linked with ~300 km optical fibers. They report environment friendly and indistinguishable single-photon sources with ultra-low-noise, tunable single-photon frequency conversion, and low-dispersion lengthy fiber transmission.
The single photons are generated from resonantly pushed single QDs deterministically coupled to microcavities. Quantum frequency conversions are used to get rid of the QD inhomogeneity and shift the emission wavelength to the telecommunications band. The noticed interference visibility is as much as 93%. According to senior creator Chao-Yang Lu, professor on the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC), “Feasible improvements can further extend the distance to ~600 km.”
Lu remarks, “Our work jumped from the previous QD-based quantum experiments at a scale from ~1 km to 300 km, two orders of magnitude larger, and thus opens an exciting prospect of solid-state quantum networks.” With this reported leap, the daybreak of solid-state quantum networks might quickly start breaking towards day.
Xiang You et al, Quantum interference with unbiased single-photon sources over 300 km fiber, Advanced Photonics (2022). DOI: 10.1117/1.AP.4.6.066003
High-visibility quantum interference between two unbiased semiconductor quantum dots achieved (2022, December 28)
retrieved 28 December 2022
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