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A 3-qubit entangled state has been realized in a completely controllable array of spin qubits in silicon


Figure 1: False-colored scanning electron micrograph of the machine. The purple and inexperienced buildings signify the aluminium gates. Six RIKEN physicists succeeded in entangling three silicon-based spin qubits utilizing the machine. Credit: RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science

An all-RIKEN workforce has elevated the variety of silicon-based spin qubits that may be entangled from two to a few, highlighting the potential of spin qubits for realizing multi-qubit quantum algorithms.


Quantum computer systems have the potential to depart standard computer systems within the dust when performing sure forms of calculations. They are primarily based on quantum bits, or qubits, the quantum equal of the bits that standard computer systems use.

Although much less mature than another qubit applied sciences, tiny blobs of silicon referred to as silicon quantum dots have a number of properties that make them extremely engaging for realizing qubits. These embrace lengthy coherence instances, high-fidelity electrical management, high-temperature operation and nice potential for scalability. However, to usefully join a number of silicon-based spin qubits, it’s essential to have the ability to entangle greater than two qubits, an achievement that had evaded physicists till now.

Seigo Tarucha and 5 colleagues, all on the RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science, have now initialized and measured a three-qubit array in silicon with high fidelity (the likelihood {that a} qubit is within the anticipated state). They additionally mixed the three entangled qubits in a single device.

This demonstration is a primary step towards extending the capabilities of quantum programs primarily based on spin qubits. “Two-qubit operation is good enough to perform fundamental logical calculations,” explains Tarucha. “But a three-qubit system is the minimal unit for scaling up and implementing error correction.”

The workforce’s device consisted of a triple quantum dot on a silicon/silicon–germanium heterostructure and is managed by way of aluminum gates. Each quantum dot can host one electron, whose spin-up and spin-down states encode a qubit. An on-chip magnet generates a magnetic-field gradient that separates the resonance frequencies of the three qubits, in order that they are often individually addressed.

The researchers first entangled two of the qubits by implementing a two-qubit gate—a small quantum circuit that constitutes the constructing block of quantum-computing units. They then realized three-qubit entanglement by combining the third qubit and the gate. The ensuing three-qubit state had a remarkably excessive state constancy of 88%, and was in an entangled state that could possibly be used for error correction.

This demonstration is just the start of an formidable course of analysis resulting in a large-scale quantum pc. “We plan to demonstrate primitive error correction using the three-qubit device and to fabricate devices with ten or more qubits,” says Tarucha. “We then plan to develop 50 to 100 qubits and implement more sophisticated error-correction protocols, paving the way to a large-scale quantum computer within a decade.”


Adding logical qubits to Sycamore quantum computer reduces error rate


More info:
Kenta Takeda et al, Quantum tomography of an entangled three-qubit state in silicon, Nature Nanotechnology (2021). DOI: 10.1038/s41565-021-00925-0

Citation:
A 3-qubit entangled state has been realized in a completely controllable array of spin qubits in silicon (2021, September 10)
retrieved 10 September 2021
from https://phys.org/news/2021-09-three-qubit-entangled-state-fully-array.html

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