Genetic useful resource might be used to guard farm-raised kuruma shrimp from illness


Kuruma shrimp are thought of a delicacy in Japan. Credit: OIST

New analysis from the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) and Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology has resulted in a helpful genetic useful resource on the kuruma shrimp. These are one of many largest species of prawn (females can attain 27cm in size) and are discovered all through the Indian and Pacific Oceans. In Japan, they’re thought of a delicacy and have been a significant fisheries and aquaculture product (particularly in Okinawa) for the reason that early twentieth century. But a giant drawback with the shrimp farms is that the excessive density of the animal implies that ailments unfold shortly.

One regarding illness is a viral an infection known as white spot illness, which is among the most threatening pathogens to shrimp aquaculture worldwide. It is deadly and extremely contagious; outbreaks have worn out complete farms in just some days.

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“We’re interested in the relationship between aquaculture animals and disease-related bacteria and viruses,” defined Dr. Eiichi Shoguchi, a Group Leader within the Marine Genomics Unit at OIST. “Having this genetic resource on hand could be useful for producing a disease-resistant line of the shrimp or vaccines.”

Supported by OIST’s DNA Sequencing Section, the researchers used two totally different methods—genome sequencing and transcriptome sequencing—to provide this genetic useful resource. Their work was revealed in G3: Genes l Genomes l Genetics.

A genome is the complete set of genetic data present in each cell. It is subdivided into genes. These genes are made up of DNA base pairs and every gene accommodates the directions wanted to create a protein, and thus results in the correct care and upkeep of a cell. For the directions to be carried out, the DNA should first be transcribed into RNA. A transcriptome is a set of all these gene readouts. In some methods, the transcriptome may be thought of a mirrored image of the genome. Some genes could be associated to illness resistance, and a few people might include variations of those gene that results in stronger resistance. If these genes may be recognized, then it might be attainable to determine a disease-resistant line of shrimp.

New research provides useful genetic resource of farm-raised kuruma shrimp
Kuruma Shrimp are an necessary aquaculture product in Okinawa, second solely to mozuku seaweed. Credit: OIST

Firstly, the researchers centered on deciphering the genome. They took one kuruma shrimp from a industrial farm in Okinawa and generated the preliminary sequences. This produced many brief DNA sequences which, though helpful, did not present the researchers with sufficient clues to string them collectively. Essentially, that they had all of the items of a puzzle however no method of assembling it. They then used a second expertise to provide longer, however much less exact, DNA sequences–the scaffolding of the genome. By bringing the 2 sequences collectively they have been in a position to assemble a draft of the genome.

Following this, the researchers analyzed 49 RNA samples of various shrimp people (together with each adults and larvae). This supplied them with 66,406 high-quality gene readouts—the draft of the transcriptome.

“The kuruma shrimp genome provides us with a comprehensive catalog of immune-related genes,” defined Mr. Satoshi Kawato, lead writer of the paper and Ph.D. scholar on the Laboratory of Genome Science, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology. “This will allow us to better understand how shrimp respond to pathogens and will aid in developing strategies for preventing disease outbreaks. The genomic resources will also help address various other aspects of shrimp biology, such as growth and reproduction.”

When their work was in comparison with that of the kuruma shrimp’s family—the large tiger prawn and the whiteleg shrimp—practically 70% genes was discovered to be the identical throughout all three species, that means {that a} excessive variety of genes have been preserved.

“We think that this will serve as a useful resource for future research to understand the shrimp‘s basic biology,” concluded Dr. Shoguchi. “But it could also be used for fishery management and to establish a breeding program.”

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More data:
Satoshi Kawato et al, Genome and transcriptome assemblies of the kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus, G3 Genes|Genomes|Genetics (2021). DOI: 10.1093/g3journal/jkab268

Genetic useful resource might be used to guard farm-raised kuruma shrimp from illness (2021, September 13)
retrieved 13 September 2021

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